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Dramatic Differences Between Adenoviruses in Dogs

Several strains of adenovirus exist, but two clinically significant adenovirus types have been identified in dogs: adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1) and adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2). Interestingly, these two adenoviruses are spread similarly, but the resulting diseases are vastly different.   Both adenoviruses are spread from dog-to-dog interactions through infected respiratory secretions or contact with contaminated…

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Clinical Approaches to Managing and Treating Adverse Vaccine Reactions

Background There is no doubt that application of modern vaccine technology has permitted us to protect companion animals effectively against serious infectious diseases. Viral disease and recent vaccination with single or combination modified live-virus (MLV) vaccines, especially those containing distemper virus, adenovirus 1 or 2, and parvovirus are increasingly recognized contributors, albeit relatively rare,  to…

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Q&A w/Dr. Dodds: Kennel Cough Complex Vaccines

Hi Dr. Dodds, I use your vaccination protocol for my puppies. I have a litter that was born in late October 2012 and I am using your updated protocol which recommends 2 parvo-distemper instead of 3. I have a question about the Kennel Cough Intranasal vaccine because it’s not mentioned in your protocol. In order…

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To vaccinate or not to vaccinate for Infectious Canine Hepatitis?

Infectious canine hepatitis (ICH) is caused by canine adenovirus -1 (CAV-1) but we no longer have vaccines against this strain because they caused  “blue eye”, a permanent protein-deposit blue opacity on one or both eyes. Instead, we vaccinate with canine adenovirus -2 (CAV-2), which is part of the kennel cough complex of viruses [CAV-2 is…

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Changing Vaccine Protocols (Part IV)

During the past few weeks, I have informed you about the dangers of overly vaccinating our pets and provided titering as a possible alternative solution. I decided to post a clinical analysis and study that Lisa Twark, DVM and I conducted about the effects of vaccines. – Best, Dr. Dodds The challenge to produce effective…

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Avoid unnecessary vaccines with titer tests (Part III)

In my last two posts, I discussed the potential side-effects (vaccinosis) of over-vaccinating our pets, and the difference between MLV (modified live) and killed vaccines. I cautioned that dogs and cats with immune-mediated diseases are especially vulnerable to vaccinosis, since over-vaccination places additional stress on their already compromised immune systems and has been linked to…

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